Natura — 28 Mai 2012
Cercetari privind Paulownia tementosa

Cercetarile privind cultura speciei Paulownia tementosa s-au efectuat in perioada 1984-1986 in cadrul unei teme complexe vizand introducerea si extinderea in cultura a unor specii forestiere de interes industrial deosebit , producatoare de lemn cu utilizari speciale . Cercetarile au urmarit sporirea resurselor proprii de materii prime si reducerea importurilor acestora , prin introducerea in cultura , pe suprafete limitate si judicios alese , a unor specii de plante lemnoase exotice , adaptabile la conditiile noastre pedoclimatice .
Paulownia tementosa este o specie lemnoasa originala din China , unde ocupa un areal caracterizat prin climate zonale foarte diversificate ( de la moderat uscate-mezoterme la moderat umede si mezoterme ) , cu temperaturi minime cuprinse intre -19°…+3,9° . Ea a fost sporadic introdusa in cultura ornamentala ( parcuri) ca arbore solitar pentru calitatile decorative deosebite . Din cauza sensibilitatii la ger , mai ales ala ingheturile timpurii care o gasesc nelignificata , cultura ei in scop forestier s-a considerat in trecut drept neindicata , atat la noi cat si in alte tari cu climat continental.
Incepand cu anul 1971 s-au efectuat la Sttiunea ICAS Stefanesti lucrari privind producerea puietilor de Paulownia . In anul 1973 , culturile dese de Paulownia pentru producerea de biomasa vegetala au produs in conditii de irigatie , cresteri de 75 m3/ha/an si in martorul neirigat 63 m3/ha/an . Tot in anul 1973 s-au efectuat plantatii experimentale cu puieti produsi la stefanesti in 5 ocoale silvice ( Baia Mare , Tauti-Magherus , Tismana , Simian si Braila ) . In ocoalele silvice Tismana , Braila si Tatauti – Magherus puietii plantati su degerat si disparut in totalitate . In celelalte ocoale mentinerea a fost partiala . O alta cultura deasa , instalata in 1979 in Baragan pentru productia de biomasa , exploatata pana in 1981 , prezinta o stare de vegetatie linceda , cu fenomene de uscare .
Cercetarile efectuate in perioada 1984-1986 au urmarit , in principal , precizarea oportunitatii culturii speciei Paulownia tementosa in fondul forestier . In acest sens , au fost studiate culturile mai vechi pentru precizarea exigentelor ecologice ale speciei , tehnologiei de producere a puietilor si urmarirea comportarii lor in culturi experimentale . Experimentarile privind cultura speciei in faza de pepiniera s-au efectuat in statiunile ICAS Stefanesti , Simeria si Hemeius , in solarii sau in liber .
In culturile experimentale ( semanaturi , repicaje , plantatii pilot ) s-au urmarit : provenienta materialului , locul experimentarii , conditiile de lucru ( solar , sera , pepiniera , substrat ) , data si modul de instalare al culturii , cantitatile ( grame , bucati puieti ) , evolutia culturii ( rasarire , prindere , mentinere ) , dimensiuni realizate ( inaltime , diametre ) , lucrari de intretinere efectuate si observatii privind comportarea in cultura ( starea de vegetatie , boli , daunatori ) .
In culturile de la noi majoritatea exemplarelor prezinta gelivuri si alte vatamari ale trunchiului ceea ce denota marea sensibilitate a acestei specii mai ales la ingheturile timpurii care o surprind de regula cu lujerii incomplet lignificati . Exemplarele tinere degera de multe ori de la nivelul solului , dar lastaresc viguros in anul urmator . Prin asemenea autoreceptari succesive rezulta in anii favorabili tulpini frumos conformate , elegante pe cativa metri . In locurile adapostite de cladiri sau alti arbori , trunchiurile sunt frumos conformate si in multe cazuri de dimensiuni mari .
Analizele foliare permit caracterizarea acestei specii comparativ cu cele indigene ca o specie exigenta fata de continutul de azot , foarte putin exigenta fata de fosfor si potasiu si foarte exigenta fata de continutul de calciu . Desi aceste exigente sunt asemanatoare cu cele ale salcamului , Paulownia nu-si poate procura azotul cu ajutorul bacteriilor fixatoare si deci nu poate valorifica solurile sarace .
Formula ecologica ce sintetizeaza exigentele acestei specii indica faptul ea are un areal colinar , iar sub aspectul celorlalti factori este euterma , pluviofila , heliofila , eubazica , eutrofa , mezohigrofita .
Paulownia a fost extinsa mai ales in cultura ornamentala ca un arbore cu deosebite calitati . In arealul natural Paulownia este un important producator de lemn . Lemnul foarte usor este folosit in industria mobilei si pentru articole sportive . La noi s-au facut incercari in cadrul Institutului de Cercetari si Proiectari pentru Industria Lemnului stabilindu-se ca posibile domenii de utilizare a lemnului : producerea placilor aglomerate , furnir tehnic estetic , piese de strungarie , obiecte sportive . Din cauza fibrelor foarte scurte lemnul nu poate fi folosit pentru producerea pastelor papetare . Datorita densitatii foarte reduse a lemnului , unele caracteristici mecanice sunt nesatisfacatoare . Printre acestea se retine in special rezistenta redusa la smulgerea cuielor , ceea ce ridica probleme in cazul obiectelor asamblate astfel .
Specia , caracterizata prin crestere rapida , a fost experimentata pentru producerea de biomasa cu rezultate bune , superioare plopilor . Semintele contin un ulei foarte apreciat pentru impregnarea unor materii fine si care intra in compunerea unor lacuri .
Din datele centralizate rezulta raspandirea in 18 judete si in municipiul Bucuresti sub forma de arbori solitari , dar si sub forma unor incercari de cultura forestiera . Varstele acestor exemplare sunt variate intre 3 si 60 de ani . Inaltimile atinse in cultura nu depasesc dacat in cazuri exceptionale 15-16 m , iar portiunea elagata a trunchiului nu depaseste 6-7 m . Izolat s-au inregistrat diametre maxime de 90 cm ; in mod curent tulpinile nu depasesc 40-58 cm . Majoritatea exemplarelpr depistate prezinta gelivuri ai alte vatamari ale trunchiului , ca urmare fireasca a sensibilitatii speciei fata de ger . Aceste vatamari favorizeaza putrezirea trunchiurilor de Paulownia , putregaiul dezvoltandu-se rapid pe lemnul moale si putin rezistent . Unele exemplare doborate pentru analize prezentau scorburi mari in interiorul tulpinii . In stare izolata si in aliniamente specia a produs trunchiuri scurte si o coroana simetrica . In locuri adapostite de cladiri sau alta vegetatie protectoare , specia poate supravietui si se pot forma trunchiuri drepte , cu gelivuri evidente de cele mai multe ori .
Cercetarea culturilor existente sub forma de exemplare izolate si mici biogrupe , conduce la constatarea ca introducerea si cultura forestiera a acestei specii pentru lemn de lucru este insotita de riscuri datorita sensibilitatii ei pronuntate fata de factorii climatici (ger ) . Ea necesita scheme largi de cultura si adapost special in primii ani . Se estimeaza ca in perioada urmatoare este indicata continuarea activitatii de instalare a plantatiilor experimentale sub forma de biogrupe si aliniamente dispersate , la adapostul unor culturi preexistente . Plantatiile pure pe suprafete mari , cu exceptia culturilor pentru biomasa nu sunt indicate . Schema optima de plantare pentru obtinerea de lemn de lucru pare a fi de 2,5×2,5 m sau cel mult 3,5×3,5m .
Dintre tipurile climatice caracteristice arealului natural al speciei numai cel moderat uscat mezoterm si moderat umed mezoterm gasesc corespondente pe teritoriul Romaniei , desi ele difera in principal prin alorile mari ale evapotranspiratiei si prezenta deficitelor de prcipitatii in toate sezoanele si nu numai iarna ca in arealul natural .
Referitor la zonele din tara indicate pentru cultura experimentala a speciei , se poate deosebi o zona considerata mai favorabila culturilor ( zona de favorabilitate A ) corespunzand corespunzand tipurilor climatice Ib – IIa cu perioade de vegetatie egale cu 9 luni sau mai mari , cu mentiune ca in aceasta zona evapotranspiratia potentiala atinge valori mai ridicate dacat in arealul natural , deficitele de precipitatii se pot inregistra in toate anotimpurile nu numai iarna ca in arealul natural si , in sfarsit , ca temperaturile minime pot fi mai coboarate . Aceste particularitati zonale implica masuri de protectie . In acest sens se vatine seama si de fenomenele meteorologice locale ( curenti calzi , uscati , curenti reci , temperaturi minime absolute etc ) ce pot constitui factori limitativi .
In a doua zona ( B) corespunzand tipurilor climatice IIb – IIIa si cu perioade de vegetatie de 8-9 luni , se pot efectua numai culturi experimentale pentru testarea favorabilitatii zonei respective .
Culturile in spatii intravilane nu sunt inl=cluse in aceasta zonare , care de regula , nu nu trebuie sa depaseasca dmeniul tipului climatic III . In cadrul zonelor de mai sus amplasarea culturilor urmeaza a se face numai pe solurile care asigura exigentele de nutritie ale speciei .

Rezumat al lucrarii :
” CERCETARILE PRIVIND CULTURA FORESTIERA A SPECIEI
PAULOWNIA TEMENTOSA “

Dr. Ing. S. Radu – ICAS Simeria
Ing. V. Cristecu
Dr. Ing I.Dumitru – Tataranu – ICAS Bucuresti

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